Wednesday, February 29, 2012

Remembering Our Sister Ruth Gilmore

RUTH E. GILMORE, of Weirton, WV passed away Tuesday February 28, 2012 in the Weirton Medical Center. She was born in Batesville, OH. She was the daughter of the late H.B. & Leota Christopher House. She was also preceded in death by three sisters & three brothers.

Ruth was a 60 plus year member of Cove Presbyterian Church, Myrtle McHendry Bible class, past moderate of the church & the Women of the Upper Ohio Valley Presbytery, 75 year member of Weirton Chapter No. 147 O.E.S., 50 plus year member of GFWC Weirton Womens Club, past chairman of the English Dept. of Weir Junior High School, & former member of the National Teachers Association of English. Ruth was a graduate of West Liberty College, attained her Masters degree from the University of Pittsburgh, & did post-graduate work at West Virginia University. She retired from Hancock County Schools.

Surviving are her daughters, Leota Sue Kite(John) of Colorado Springs, CO & Sandra Kay Nixon of Weirton, WV, seven grandchildren, & seven great grandchildren.

Visitation will be at Cove Presbyterian Church, 3404 Main Street, Weirton, WV on Saturday March 3, 2012 from 10:00 a.m. until time of the funeral at 11:00 a.m. The funeral will be officiated by Reverend Terry Stoops, Dr. J.E. Rudiger, & Dr. Phillip Makari. Burial will follow at Friends Cemetery, Quaker City, OH.

Tuesday, February 28, 2012

A New Devotion on Our Prayer Line - Muddy Shoes?

Ephesians 3:14-21 (The Message)

14-19My response is to get down on my knees before the Father, this magnificent Father who parcels out all heaven and earth. I ask him to strengthen you by his Spirit—not a brute strength but a glorious inner strength—that Christ will live in you as you open the door and invite him in. And I ask him that with both feet planted firmly on love, you’ll be able to take in with all followers of Jesus the extravagant dimensions of Christ’s love. Reach out and experience the breadth! Test its length! Plumb the depths! Rise to the heights! Live full lives, full in the fullness of God.

20-21God can do anything, you know—far more than you could ever imagine or guess or request in your wildest dreams! He does it not by pushing us around but by working within us, his Spirit deeply and gently within us.

Glory to God in the church!
Glory to God in the Messiah, in Jesus!
Glory down all the generations!
Glory through all millennia! Oh, yes!


A Devotion by Bob G. Wood (Tennessee)

An old joke tells about two Israelites who were following Moses across the bed of the Red Sea just after God parted the waters. One comments to the other, “Can you imagine what this mud is doing to our sandals? They’re probably ruined.”

Many of us are like that person in the story; we’re so focused on the negatives and worries of our lives that we completely miss the miracles and blessings all around us. We fixate on the cold, rainy weather, the leaky bathroom faucet, the difficult person at work, the snarled traffic slowing our commute. At the same time, we take for granted or even ignore the many blessings we receive every day — love from family and friends, a warm and dry place to live, the security of a job, and the freedom to worship God as we wish.

God is “able to do immeasurably more than all we ask or imagine.” Faith focuses not on the problems of the moment but on the many blessings in each day.

Sunday, February 26, 2012

Sunday's Sermon - We Don’t Need a Bridge

1 Peter 3:18-22

18Because Christ also once, on account of sin, suffered, the righteous one for those who aren’t righteous, so that he might bring you to God; he who, on one hand, was put to death in flesh but on the other hand was brought to life in spirit, 19in which also to those spirits in prison he went and preached, 20who didn’t obey at some time when the God’s patience waited in the days of Noah when he built an ark into which a few (there were eight persons) were saved through water, 21which also corresponds to baptism, now saves you, not as putting off dirt of the flesh but as a pledge of a good conscious to God, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ, 22who is at the right hand of God and went into heaven and angels and powers and authorities submit to him.


We Don’t Need a Bridge

I’ll tell you, in the this past week, I just couldn’t seem to get away from bridges. My gosh, they kept coming up over and over again. I mean, first, I read that one of the things Mitt Romney has been talking about recently is how Rick Santorium voted for one of the most famous bridges in the United States even though it was never built, that wonderful example of pork barrel spending, Alaska’s “Bridge to Nowhere.” And then, there I was Tuesday morning, getting ready to step into the shower when “boom.” The windows rattled. Car alarms started going off. And the Weirton bridge was no more. And then on Thursday, I was at a meeting in Wheeling. You see, I’m on a committee to reform the presbytery, and someone brought up something about a bridge, and I’ll tell you that image ended up dominating at least twenty minutes. Let’s just say, I’ve been pretty much bridged to death over the last week.

But you know, all this stuff, especially the discussion we had in Wheeling, well, it kind of got me thinking about bridges, especially the kind that go over rivers and bodies of water. I mean, what’s the real purpose of a bridge? Now to me, that’s a pretty good question. And I’ll tell you, when you think about it, the answer really has to be more than just to connect two places. You see, that’s what a road does, and you really don’t need a bridge to do that. As a matter of fact, all we’d need is a road to connect Weirton and Steubenville, if it wasn’t for one little thing: the Ohio River. And even that wouldn’t be a big deal if it weren’t for something else. Cars don’t float, at least not for long. And even if they could, they might get carried away by the current and we’d end up “Lord knows” where.

You see, I don’t need a bridge to get from one point to another. My goodness, I don’t need a bridge to drive from Steubenville to Wintersville. But to go from Weirton to Naples Spaghetti House, man, I need a bridge. And if I didn’t have one, well, I’ve got to tell you, a meat ball sandwich isn’t worth driving into the river and probably becoming overwhelmed and very likely drowning. Because, if you’re not careful, water can kill you. And so it can sure be nice to have a bridge.

And you know, that’s sort of the way it is in life isn’t it? Isn’t that what Simon and Garfunkel had in mind when they wrote, “When you’re weary, feeling small, when tears are in your eyes, I will dry them all. I’m on your side. When times get rough and friends just can’t be found. Like a bridge over troubled water, I will lay me down. Like a bridge over troubled water, I will lay me down.” And you know, I can really understand what they’re saying. What about you? I mean, do you ever feel as though you’re about to be overwhelmed by what you could sure call “troubled water”? And I don’t care if your water involves friends or family, school or work, health or money, speaking for myself, I know that every now-and-then it sure seems as though the waves are just too much for me to handle and that the current is pulling me in direction that I don’t want to go and that no matter what I do or avoid doing, I still feel as though I’m sinking. And if things don’t change, I just might drown. But if I just had a bridge, if I had something solid and secure to stand on, not only I would I be able get over, you know, to the other side, I might be able to do it without even getting wet. And so I guess you could say that whether you’re talking about rivers or life, bridges can sure come in handy. In fact, they’re something we might need just to survive, or so we think. In fact, a lot of Christian refer to Jesus as their bridge.

But you know, when you read this passage, I’m not sure that’s entirely true, at least not when you’re talking about the “troubled water” we all face from time to time in our lives. In other words, right now we may no longer need a bridge at all, and I’ll tell you why. It seems as though, according to Peter, things have changed, and this kind of bridge isn’t necessary anymore, at least not for believers, and it’s all because of Christ. You see, thanks to what Jesus did, and I’m talking about the crucifixion and resurrection, we really don’t need a bridge to make it through life, because the nature of water itself has been changed. It’s no longer what it used to be. As a matter of fact, it’s been transformed from something that’s threatening, you know, something to be feared. Thanks to Jesus it’s now something that actually leads to salvation.

And like I said, I think that’s what Peter is getting at in the verses we read a little while ago. Now, before we go any further, I’ve got to admit, this isn’t the easiest passage in the New Testament. As a matter of fact, after reading it, I felt a little like a guy on a pulpit nominating committee that interviewed me right before I graduated from seminary. He asked me if I was “liberal” or “conservative,” and after explaining to him that I considered myself either orthodox or better, neo-orthodox, I asked if I’d been clear in my explanation. He looked at me and said words I’ll never forget; he said, “Clear as mud.” They didn’t call me.

Well, in some ways this passage is just about clear as mud, especially this business about Jesus preaching to folks who were “in prison.” But you know, if you push some of this stuff aside, what Peter wrote is pretty remarkable. I mean, after talking about Christ’s suffering and death and mentioning his resurrection, Peter used the imagine of Noah, you know about how “...he built an ark into which a few (there were eight persons) were saved through water.”

Of course, I think most of us know the story of Noah, how he built a big boat to save two of every kind of animal because, according to Genesis, “...all the fountains of the great deep burst forth, and the windows of the heavens were opened. The rain fell on the earth forty days and forty nights.” In other words, God allowed the waters that he separated on the second day of creation, when he “... made the dome and separated the waters that were under the dome from the waters that were above the dome. And...God called the dome Sky,” he allowed the chaos that was there at the beginning to consume everything, everything with the exception of eight people and a bunch of animals floating in an ark. Every other living thing drowned. I’m telling you, in the time of Noah, water was bad news.

But I want you notice, according to Peter, that’s not what it meant for the folks who were reading his letter. You see, the whole meaning, the whole significance of water had been transformed. It had been turned on its head, because, as he wrote, that “water, which...corresponds to baptism, now saves you.” In other words, this incredibly destructive force, this power that was beyond the control of ancient people, this symbol for chaos itself, because of Jesus Christ, they didn’t have to be afraid of it anymore. It was all under the control of God.

And I’ll tell you, brothers and sisters, I think it’s just as true for us right now as it was for them. You see, regardless of what we may think or even want to believe on a bad day, the death and resurrection of Christ showed once and for all that chaos doesn’t exist anymore. It doesn’t exist in the universe and it certainly doesn’t exist in our lives. In other words, those troubled waters that bother us so much, they’ve been changed into something more peaceful. In fact, they’re leading us to salvation. And it’s all because of the one who died and rose again.

And you know, when you think about, that change, well it just, plain makes sense. I mean, think about how his death, and I’m talking about the crucifixion affects us. I’m telling you, in a real way, it sets us free from our past, and I’ll tell you why. A little earlier in his letter Peter wrote, “‘He committed no sin, and no deceit was found in his mouth.’ When he was abused, he did not return abuse; when he suffered, he did not threaten; but he entrusted himself to the one who judges justly. He himself bore our sins in his body on the cross, so that, free from sins, we might live for righteousness; by his wounds you have been healed.” And you know, that explains why he could write in our passage, “Because Christ also once, on account of sin, suffered, the righteous one for those who aren’t righteous, so that he might bring you to God...” You see, because Christ died on that cross, so did we. Our sins died right up there with him. And because of that, we have no reason to feel controlled by the past, unless that’s we want to be. Because of the cross, we’re no longer bound to be what people have always expected us to be. We’re no longer slaves to drives and urges that have only gotten us into trouble. And we’re no longer obligated to relive and suffer because past mistakes. We are free, free at last. The past waters have been changed.

But it’s not just about the past, because the tomb was empty, our future has been changed too. I mean, we now have a reason to hope as we move forward, because regardless of what’s happening around and even to us, we know that the resurrected Christ “...is [and will always be] at the right hand of God and [that he] went into heaven and [that the] angels and powers and authorities submit to him.” I’ll tell you, I hope everyone who’s here this morning, I hope y’all believe, I hope y’all trust that our God is one who’s willing and able to save us without our help. You see, he’s the one who holds the destiny of the universe in his hands and that when it comes to us, nothing, and I mean nothing can separate us from his love. Man, we have reason to hope, because the waters we’ll face in the future have changed.

And because of that, because we have freedom from the past and hope in the future, our life right now in the present...well, the present can be an exciting place to be. I mean, now we can appreciate everything around us that’s good, and I don’t care if you’re talking about a good deed or a good steak. Because we trust in God and his care and concern, we can begin to see what he saw when he looked at creation and declared it good. But more than just being more appreciative, we can also be more patient, and I’m talking about being more patient with both people and situations, because we know that (what do they say) this too shall past. You see, problems and pain, fear and frustrations, man, they won’t have the final word, because that word is already in the mouth of our eternal Father. And finally, right along with appreciation and patience, I think we’ll also be able to live right now with courage. You know, each and every day I think we all see situations where change is possible. We see the hungry who could be fed and the thirsty who could be given something to drink. We see the stranger who could be welcomed and the naked who could be clothed. And we see the sick who need care and the prisoner who needs a visit. Man, this stuff is all around us. All that’s needed are people with the courage to act. And praise God, we can be those people, because how we see the waters of the present have changed.

Of course, having said all that, I recognize that bridges are still necessary. I mean, I doubt that I’ll be able to drive the Mini Cooper to Steubenville without something across the Ohio River. But as it comes to our lives and the troubled, chaotic water we assume that we may be facing, well, believe me, that’s all changed. You see, through the death and resurrection of Christ, we’ve been set free, offered hope and given the chance to live an exciting life right now. In a very real way, the very nature of the waters that often scare us so much, well, they’ve been changed. And for that reason, maybe for us, we don’t need a bridge anymore.

A New Devotion on Our Prayer Line - Never Give Up!

Mark 10:46-52 (The Message)

46-48They spent some time in Jericho. As Jesus was leaving town, trailed by his disciples and a parade of people, a blind beggar by the name of Bartimaeus, son of Timaeus, was sitting alongside the road. When he heard that Jesus the Nazarene was passing by, he began to cry out, “Son of David, Jesus! Mercy, have mercy on me!” Many tried to hush him up, but he yelled all the louder, “Son of David! Mercy, have mercy on me!”

49-50Jesus stopped in his tracks. “Call him over.”

They called him. “It’s your lucky day! Get up! He’s calling you to come!” Throwing off his coat, he was on his feet at once and came to Jesus.

51Jesus said, “What can I do for you?”

The blind man said, “Rabbi, I want to see.”

52“On your way,” said Jesus. “Your faith has saved and healed you.”

In that very instant he recovered his sight and followed Jesus down the road.


A Devotion by David Gwee (Singapore)

Have you ever encountered a problem so big that you felt like giving up? The story of Bartimaeus taught me three things about such problems.

First, I can’t listen to naysayers. When Bartimaeus heard that Jesus was near, he cried out desperately to him. Many tried to quiet Bartimaeus. But he wanted a good thing, sight, and he knew that Jesus could heal him. So he kept calling out. He did not let others discourage him.

Second, I have to do my part. Jesus didn’t go to Bartimaeus. Instead Jesus called him over. Bartimaeus had to take steps of faith toward the Messiah for his healing. Again, Bartimaeus was determined. In spite of his blindness, he made his way to Jesus.

Third, I need faith. Without faith it is impossible to please God. (See Heb. 11:6.) And Jesus reinforced this when he said to Bartimaeus, “Your faith has made you well.” Now when I face problems big or small, I follow the example I see in the story of Bartimaeus, knowing that God who is ever gracious and merciful will hear me and help me.

Friday, February 24, 2012

A New Devotion on Our Prayer Line - God Is Our Refuge

Psalm 46:1-11

1-3 God is a safe place to hide, ready to help when we need him.
We stand fearless at the cliff-edge of doom,
courageous in seastorm and earthquake,
Before the rush and roar of oceans,
the tremors that shift mountains.
Jacob-wrestling God fights for us,
God-of-Angel-Armies protects us.

4-6 River fountains splash joy, cooling God’s city,
this sacred haunt of the Most High.
God lives here, the streets are safe,
God at your service from crack of dawn.
Godless nations rant and rave, kings and kingdoms threaten,
but Earth does anything he says.

7 Jacob-wrestling God fights for us,
God-of-Angel-Armies protects us.

8-10 Attention, all! See the marvels of God!
He plants flowers and trees all over the earth,
Bans war from pole to pole,
breaks all the weapons across his knee.
“Step out of the traffic! Take a long,
loving look at me, your High God,
above politics, above everything.”

11 Jacob-wrestling God fights for us,
God-of-Angel-Armies protects us.


A Devotion by Victoria Summer Deimler (Pennsylvania)

Several years ago, I experienced my first move. We had been renting the house I called home for as long as I could remember, but then our landlord sold the property for development. Months before we moved, construction workers started to change things outside. They tore down our old garage, made the driveway wider, and bulldozed dirt into huge piles on either side of the house, covering the little trails that we used for walks in the woods.

Little by little, our world was crumbling. We had spent many fun times in that house and made many memories. For me, leaving it was like saying goodbye to an extra-special place in my life
— the place where we splashed in the creek, sledded down our big hill, took walks in the woods, and picked pears, berries, and occasionally lilacs for our teachers.

Life brings change; nothing seems to stay the same. We can be comforted to know that in the face of all the change God will never leave us, and God will never change. We can live and walk spiritually with an ever-present, never-changing Companion. God is our refuge and will always be
with us.

The Announcements as They Appear in Sunday's Bulletin

The announcements as they appear in Sunday's bulletin are below:

OUR NURSERY FOR CHILDREN . . .
(infant thru five years) is open during Sunday School and the Worship Service. We still need some volunteer help. We thank those of you in advance who help to care for the future members of our Cove Family.

DON’T FORGET SUNDAY SCHOOL . . .
we meet every Sunday morning at 9:45 a.m. Think about trying out one of our classes. We have a variety of classes to choose from to fit your needs.

CHILDREN’S HANDBELL PRACTICE . . .
every Sunday morning at 10:30 a.m. in the old Youth Room.

BOOKMARKS, . . .
Cove’s Reading Group, will meet on Monday, February 27 at 6:30 p.m. in the church parlor.

THE BROWN BAG BIBLE STUDY . . .
will meet on Thursday, March 1, at 12:30 p.m. We’ll look at Anglicanism.

WORLD DAY OF PRAYER. . .
is scheduled for March 2, 2012 1:00p.m. in the First United Methodist Church. The theme will be “Let Justice Prevail.” The Christian women of Malaysia invite us to join them Friday, March 2, for World Day of Prayer 2012. They strive to be neighbors within a multireligious country among a Muslim majority, so they open the service with “Selamat datang” - “Peace and Welcome.” This greeting is a reminder that harmony as a people is rooted in peace and welcome. They name fair and just governance as the basis for harmony in the social order. They remind us, however, that the ideal of peace and harmony is undermined by corruption and greed, and it is distorted when voices for truth and justice are silenced. A hymn of trust serves as a transition to the Gospel reading from Luke. The women of Malaysia contextualize Luke’s parable by telling the story of Irene Fernandez, who reported the suffering of migrant workers. She was charged, found guilty of spreading false information and imprisoned for 13 years. In the Old Testament, the prophet Habakkuk is disturbed by the desperate conditions around him and complains bitterly to God. One needs to read Habakkuk closely to realize that in pain and doubt, God offers an inner strength that is needed for justice to prevail. The 2012 service encourages worshipers to respond from their own context to the theme, “Let justice prevail.” There is an activity for participants in which they name an injustice and identify a first step toward gaining justice. A clear message emerges from this service:
It takes courage, compassion and active engagement for justice to prevail. WDP’s motto, “Informed prayer leads to powerful action,” affirms that prayer and action are inseparable and that both have immeasurable influence. We encourage you to begin thinking about actions that you can take to further support the 2012 theme, which calls us to work with God and with each other to create a world in which each gender, race, culture, religion and state is honored, nurtured and empowered. World Day of Prayer is sponsored by Church Women United of Weirton. Eloise Evans, Betty Virtue and Penny Mourat are representatives for our Presbyterian Women . The program will be presented by the first-year members with Eloise Evans from our church participating. We are asked to bring snacks for the Christian Center as our mission project for the day. Everyone is invited. A tea will follow.

DEACONS WILL MEET . . .
Monday, March 5, 2012 at 7:00 p.m. in the board room. All members are encouraged to attend.

FOR MYRTLE MCHENDRY . . .
the times have changed! The first meeting of the new year for the class will be Tuesday, March 6 at 12:30 p.m. in fellowship hall. Eleanor Cline will introduce the theme for the afternoon Show and Tell. Bring your treasure in your trunk or your purse. It can be your hobby, something from your collection or just something you cherish. Our programs for the year are planned and our new yearbooks are ready. We look forward to a great year celebrating our Ninetieth Anniversary. Betty Virtue will conduct the business meeting and Betty Morgan will give the devotions. Hostesses for the afternoon will be Eloise Evans and Betty Virtue. Come and enjoy!

BOARD OF SESSION . . .
will meet on Tuesday, March 6, 2012 at 6:30 p.m. in the board room. All members are asked to attend.

THE MONTHLY TRUSTEE MEETING . .
will be held on the second Monday of the month at 6:30 p.m. in the board room.

I KNOW MY REDEEMER LIVES . . .
is the title of the Cantata to be presented by the Chancel Choir on Palm Sunday, April 1 during the morning worship.

SHARING BRINGS JOY TO OTHERS, TO GOD AND TO US . . .
is the theme of this year’s One Great Hour of Sharing Campaign. For over six decades we as Presbyterians have been sharing what we have with others. One Great Hour of Sharing is an ecumenical offering, with denominations working together, but each deciding on how the gifts they give will be used. The Presbyterian church distributes the monies in the following way: 36% for the Presbyterian Hunger Program; 32% for the Presbyterian Disaster Assistance Program and 32% for Self-Development of People. Starting today thru Palm Sunday there will be inserts in your bulletins telling how previous monies have been used.

OUR SYMPATHY . . .
is extended to the family of Russell J. Meadows, grandfather of Lori Lancaster, who died on Tuesday, February 21, 2012.

GREETING CARDS. . .
are being collected as a mission project of the Myrtle McHendry Class. Please drop off your Greeting Cards or just the front of the card in the box located in the main hallway downstairs. The cards are being sent to St. Jude’s Ranch to be remade into cards to be sold in their gift shop. Hallmark, Disney or American Greeting Cards can not be accepted as they are trade marked. We thank you for your participation in our new endeavor.

DO YOU HAVE A NEW ADDRESS,. . .
new phone number or new e-mail ? Please contact the church office so we can update our records. We like to keep everyone informed of our events. If you don’t receive mailings from us, we may not have your current/correct information.

HAND SANITIZERS . . .
as a way of combating germs, two hand sanitizers have been installed for your convenience. One is located on the right wall downstairs as you come in the double doors. The second is located on the far wall in the narthex as you go towards the back stairway or towards the elevator.

PLEASE REMEMBER TO CONTACT THE CHURCH OFFICE . . .
if you have a meeting change of any type - time, date or plan something different on your meeting night. There are multiple meeting each night, and to accommodate everyone we need to be aware of any and all changes please either e-mail or telephone us. Also remember we follow Hancock County School’s schedule in the winter, if school is canceled due to bad weather evening activities are canceled as well. Thank you for your cooperation in these matters.

STOP IN THE CHURCH LIBRARY . . .
to view a picture of Holliday’s Cove from 1905 showing a view of Cove Church. The picture is compliments of the Weirton Museum.

REMINDER, PLEASE COVER . . .
the top of the church’s tables before they are used for any activity. They will stain and are hard to clean, this can be avoided with a little cooperation.

ONLY ONE. . .
a Peg Game designed by Bruce Trushel, is available in the church library. The learning game is a unique way to learn and remember the Ten Commandments. The game can be ordered from:
Only One God Foundation
PO Box 2459
Weirton WV 26062

GREETERS NEEDED . . .
if you would like to serve as a greeter before a Sunday morning worship service, please contact Bonnie Nichols at 304-723-5134.

WE ARE BLOGGING!
We now have six blogs that you can check out for information and on which you can leave comments. They're listed below:
• The Cove Community (www.thecovecommunity.blogspot.com) - This is for the whole church. I'll post sermons and announcements. I also invite y'all to send in material that you'd like to share with other members of the congregation. And please feel free to comment on anything you might read.
• Cove Kids (www.covekids.blogspot.com) - This is tailored for the preteen young people in our church. Again I'll post announcements. You're also invited to send in any writings, photographs and art work you'd like to post. And they don't have to all deal with the church. We also post artwork from Jesus Time.
• Glue (www.cove-glue.blogspot.com) - Our teens are running their own blog site; therefore, I have no idea what will be posted.
• Bible Talk (www.cove-bibletalk.blogspot.com) - We've established this blog to give pastors and lay people the chance to discuss Scripture. The weekly passages are from the Common Lectionary, and we're posting the pastor’s translation of the Greek text. We want you to read any or all of the passages and to leave any comment or ask any question that you feel is appropriate. Please include any research you've done. As we share our ideas and insights, we hope that we'll all come to a better and deeper understanding of the Bible. Each passage is linked to a website that offers some informative information.
• Let’s Talk About It (www.cove-talk.blogspot.com) - Through this site, we hope to encourage a conversation on a variety of topics. Since this blog is sponsored by a church, we expect most of the issues to involve the Christian faith. Still we don't want to limit ourselves or you. If you have a topic that you'd like us to discuss, include it as a comment to a previous issue. Please phrase it as a question and offer a summary of at least two positions. We'll add a new item to discuss every three weeks. We hope this challenges you to apply your faith to issues that are important to you.
• The Bible in a Year (www.cove-bibleinayear.blogspot.com) - Each day, we'll post passages so that you can read the Bible in one year.

IT IS OFTEN DIFFICULT TO HEAR PRAYER REQUESTS . . .
on Sunday mornings. If you would like to have someone added to the prayer chain please drop a short note into the collection plate with their name and any other information you would like to share. You may also call the church office or e-mail the church with the information.

IF YOU LEAVE AN ITEM AT CHURCH . . .
for someone or for a specific function, please take a moment to write the information on the item. If there is no name on the item we will assume it is for the church in general.

IN THE HOSPITAL? HOMEBOUND? RECENT ILLNESS?. . .
if you are unable to attend services and would like to arrange for a visit from Rev. Ed Rudiger please contact the church office. Also if you would like to be included in our weekly bulletin mailings contact the church office.

WE CAN ALWAYS DO A BETTER JOB MINISTERING . . .
to the needs within this congregation, community and world. Please feel free to offer any suggestions as comments.

LOOSE CHANGE OFFERING . . .
Session has approved the Deacons collecting a “Loose Change Offering” that will be used to assist the Deacons with their utility assistance outreach program for Weirton residents or Cove Church members. We hope church members can help with the assistance program by donating some of their spare change. A container is placed in the Narthex each Sunday morning before church. The Deacons thank you for your continuing support of their projects.

VASES OF FLOWERS. . .
can be purchased for a service. The cost is $16.00 a vase. Silk flowers or live plants can be purchased for an additional cost. The flower calendar is located on the far wall in the church narthex or you can telephone the church office to place your order. After the service, the flowers will be placed in a plastic vase for you to take with you.

IF YOU ARE LOOKING FOR NEWSPAPER CLIPPINGS. . .
newsletters from old friends or articles about or by members of Cove Church, check out the bulletin board located in the hallway by the church offices. Past event pictures are also on display in that area.

WE’RE UPDATING OUR PRAYER AND DEVOTION LINE . . .
about four times a week. If you would like to call and hear a devotional, please call 304-748-7900.

ONGOING MISSION PROJECTS . . .
• Used Can Tabs are being collected for the Ronald McDonald House in Morgantown, West Virginia. Deposit your tabs in the container located in the main hallway downstairs.
• Campbell’s Labels are being collected by the Presbyterian Women for the Weirton Christian Center. The labels can be dropped off in the container located in the main hallway downstairs.

As We Enter Lent

Since this is the first Sunday in a time of year called Lent, I thought you might appreciate a little information about the orgin and meaning of this season. The following is from an article entitled "Lent," from Wikipedia.

Lent (Latin: Quadragesima, "fortieth") is the Christian observance of the liturgical year from Ash Wednesday to Holy Thursday.


The traditional purpose of Lent is the penitential preparation of the believer—through prayer, penance, repentance, almsgiving, and self-denial. Its institutional purpose is heightened in the annual commemoration of Holy Week, marking the Death and Resurrection of Jesus, which recalls the events of the Passion of Christ on Good Friday, which then culminates in the celebration on Easter Sunday of the Resurrection of Jesus Christ.


During Lent, many of the faithful commit to fasting or giving up certain types of luxury as a form of penitence. The Stations of the Cross, a devotional commemoration of Christ's carrying the Cross and of His execution, are often observed. Many Roman Catholic and some Protestant churches bare their altars of candles, flowers, and other devotional offerings, while Crucifixes, religious statues, and other elaborate religious paraphernalia are often veiled in violet fabrics in observance of this event. In certain pious Catholic countries, grand processions and cultural customs are observed, and the faithful attempt to visit seven churches during Holy Week in honor of Jesus Christ heading to Mount Calvary.


According to the Synoptic gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke, Jesus spent forty days fasting in the desert before the beginning of His public ministry, where He endured temptation by Satan. Thus, Lent is described as being forty days long, though different denominations calculate the forty days differently. In many of the Christian churches, Lent is regarded as being forty days long, but the Sundays between Shrove Tuesday and Easter Sunday are not typically regarded as being part of Lent; thus, the date of Shrove Tuesday will typically be slightly more than forty days before Easter Sunday.


This event, along with its pious customs are observed by Roman Catholics, Lutherans, Methodists, Presbyterians, Anglicans, as well as some Baptists and Mennonites.

And below is a poem by Sandra Martyres entitled "Lenten Thoughts."

A time to reflect
On our lives
A time to deflect
Attention from mundane things
A time to repent
For all our misdeeds
A time to make peace
With our misguided friends
A time to abstain
From food and wine
A time to pray
For those in pain
A time to thank God
For all that we have
A time to pledge ourselves
To doing good whenever we can.

Prayer Requests, to be shared during Sunday's worship service

On Sunday, February 26, the Cove Presbyterian congregation will lift the follow needs to God:

Adults
Alden Edwards
Andrea Vincent
Andy DiRemigio
Ann Berach
Anthony Calpo
Barbara Henry
Bill Churchman
Bob Saffle
Charles Saffle
Cheryl Tice
Christy Cybulski
Connie Francis
Dave Bever
Diane Szymanek
Domenick Notarantanio
Doug Friends
Dryer family - Meyer, Welch & Hawkins
Ed Roach
Erin Marosi
Faith Bonyak
Flavio Gardeazabal Gomes de Oliveria
Jack Games
Jan Moncrief
Jane Hamp
Jennifer Dahlem
Jim Hanna
Joan Gallagher
John Brothers
Judy Dobbins
Judy Lindquist
Judy Mason
Karen & her son Daniel
Kelly Stephens
Ken Robinson
Lindsey Ward
Loretta Hess
Millie Randolph
Mr. & Mrs. Mario Whitehead & Joyce
Nick Palavis
Nora Coleman
Patty Neely
Paul Buck
Paul Maine
Paul Rosnick
Rachael
Rhonda Bruich
Rich Jeffers
Richard Redfern
Ron Sekersky
Roxie Sosenko
Sherry VanGilder
Susan Ponville
T.J. Croft
Trina Lewis
Virginia & Paul Welch

Children
Audri King
Brandon Wares
Brody McUmor
Christian Truax
Emily Icard
Hunter Stafford
Jeffrey Konovich
Jonah Becker
Justus Loughry
Kyra Schwertfeger
Kylee Leathers
McKenna Popish
Michael Liptak
Shelby Kamarec
Zoe Purcell

Military
Chad Peppler
Chris Cameron
Jonathan Criss
Kendra Mader
Michael Criss
Stephen Mader

In the Hospital
Harry Hutch - Trinity East

Bereaved Families
The Family of Russell Meadows

Church Families
Kathy Banks
Lou & Carol Bernardi
Dale & Pat Biesecker

Local Church
Weirton Hts. Memorial Baptist

Special Friend
Kitty Heilman - 1215 Glencairn Rd., Weirton WV 26062-4323

Presbyterian Churches
Riverside Presbyterian Church, Wellsville, OH - Rev. Duane Hetzer
Yellow Creek Presbyterian Church, Wellsville, OH - Rev. Derek Marotta

Also Remember in Your Prayers
Alice Orr - Weirton Geriatric Center, 2525 Pennsylvania Ave, Weirton, WV 26062
Bob Morgan - Weirton Geriatric Center, 2526 Pennsylvania Ave, Weirton, WV 26062
Jim Hanna - Brightwood
Marge Black - Weirton Geriatric Center, Room 223, 2528 Pennsylvania Ave, Weirton, WV 26062
Mike Valiga - Weirton Geriatric Center, 2530 Pennsylvania Ave, Weirton, WV 26062
Russell Meadows - Weirton Geriatric Center, 2525 Pennsylvania Ave, Weirton, WV 26062
Ruth Gilmore - Room 236, The Laurels, 340 S Hollywood Blvd., Steubenville, OH 43952
Thelma Longacre - Chambrel at Montrose, Unit 210, 100 Brookmont Rd, Akron, OH 44333-3091

Thursday, February 23, 2012

Sunday's Minute for Mission - The Outreach Foundation

On this first During the past 30 years, the church in China has been on an incredible journey of growth and vitality. Christian believers have been sharing the good news so effectively that they have a problem - more people are becoming Christians than the church can disciple. Chinese church shepherds face the daunting challenge of nurturing these new believers so that they indeed bear fruit and grow in the knowledge of God.

Future pastors study at Shandong Theological
Seminary in Jinan, China.
For more than 30 years The Outreach Foundation has been serving the global partners of the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) to build their capacity for carrying out their own mission and ministry. Recently, we have worked with the leadership of the China Christian Council and a Hong Kong-based Christian publishing company to provide a discipleship-training course for new believers that is appropriate to the context of the church in mainland China. Known in English as the "2:7 Series,'' the Chinese title for the course is "Taking Root Downward, Bearing Fruit Upward'' (Isa. 37:31). Trial versions of the course have been field-tested and enthusiastically received in a variety of church settings throughout China.

The church in China is just one of the global partners of The Outreach Foundation, a Validated Mission Support Group of the PC(USA). It is our joy to engage Presbyterians with such partners in proclaiming the good news of Jesus Christ.

— The Rev. Jeff Richie, associate director, The Outreach Foundation

Remembering Our Brother Russell Meadows

RUSSELL J. MEADOWS, 90 of Weirton, WV passed away Tuesday February 21, 2012 at the Weirton Geriatric Center. He was born March 30, 1921 in Alkol, WV, Lincoln County, WV. He was the son of the late Warren & Ella Sheets Meadows. He was also preceded in death by his sister Nan Hannah, & brothers Ralph, Beuford, Ellis, Eugene, & Ray Meadows. On April 18, 1942 he married Martha Melba Mallory Meadows, who survives.

Russell was a member of Kings Creek Union Chapel, Weirton Lodge No. 171 A.F. & A.M., a U.S. Army, World War II veteran. He was also an avid WVU fan. He retired as maintenance foreman at TIMET, Toronto, OH.

Surviving along with his wife, Martha Melba Mallory Meadows, of nearly seventy years are his daughters Theresa Jo Riggle(Robert) of Weirton, WV, Trina Meadows(Ray Garcia) of Lubbock, TX, grandchildren Lori Lancaster(Allen) of Weirton, WV, David Crow of Mechanicsville, MD, Russell Caranfa(Sibel) of North Richland Hill, TX, Marty McSpadden(Ed) of Mabank, TX, Dommie Caranfa of Garland, TX, James Caranfa(Sybil) of Rio Rancha, NM, Melanie Leiendecker of Myrtle Beach, SC, four great granddaughters, eight greatgrandsons, & sister JoAnn Midkiff of Yawkey, WV.

Visitation will be at the Steel & Wolfe Funeral Home, Inc., 380 Penco Road, Weirton, WV on Thursday 2-4 & 6-8 where funeral services will be held Friday at 11:00 a.m. with Pastor Darrell Maze officiating. Entombment will follow at Chapel Hill Memorial Gardens. Military funeral honors will be provided by American Legion Post No.10 honor/firing squad & the West Virginia Honor Guard.

Wednesday, February 22, 2012

Minute for Mission for Ash Wednesday

As a child, the first day of Lent left an early impression. It was evident from the adults who surrounded me that repentance was being evaluated. While I didn't fully understand the conversations, I did get the feeling that Lent was to be the time of remembering and looking ahead for ways to lead more full lives of service.

Our kitchen table was a gathering place. Gardens, canning, and preservation of food were very much a part of our daily life. Seeds were planted on every piece of open land, however small, and bounties were shared. Food for the body was plentiful and the homeless (called hobos) were welcome at our table. As a child, I learned that God's people make the world a better place by feeding the hungry and providing care. I learned by example.

Just as the church members in Colossae were encouraged to wear kindness, humility, compassion, and gentleness, we, too, can use these fruits of the Spirit as a measure of our spiritual life. Please join me in answering these questions and then ask "How?''

In this past year, did I grow spiritually? Was it hopeful for myself and others? Did I feed people and nature around me? What have I stood up for that helped to make for a just society? Did I speak when I saw the misuse of power at the expense of the powerless? Have I ignored opportunities to learn a vision for mission from someone very different from myself?

Asking questions and the question behind the question are perhaps what God expects.

— Helen Morrison, elder, Grosse Ile Presbyterian Church, Grosse Ile, Michigan

Tuesday, February 21, 2012

A New Devotion on Our Prayer Line - On Whom Can I Rely?

Proverbs 2:1-11

1-5 Good friend, take to heart what I’m telling you; collect my counsels and guard them with your life.
Tune your ears to the world of Wisdom;
set your heart on a life of Understanding.
That’s right—if you make Insight your priority,
and won’t take no for an answer,
Searching for it like a prospector panning for gold,
like an adventurer on a treasure hunt,
Believe me, before you know it Fear-of-God will be yours;
you’ll have come upon the Knowledge of God.

6-8 And here’s why: God gives out Wisdom free,
is plainspoken in Knowledge and Understanding.
He’s a rich mine of Common Sense for those who live well,
a personal bodyguard to the candid and sincere.
He keeps his eye on all who live honestly,
and pays special attention to his loyally committed ones.

9-15 So now you can pick out what’s true and fair,
find all the good trails!
Lady Wisdom will be your close friend,
and Brother Knowledge your pleasant companion.
Good Sense will scout ahead for danger,
Insight will keep an eye out for you.
They’ll keep you from making wrong turns,
or following the bad directions
Of those who are lost themselves
and can’t tell a trail from a tumbleweed,
These losers who make a game of evil
and throw parties to celebrate perversity,
Traveling paths that go nowhere,
wandering in a maze of detours and dead ends.


A Devotion by Doris Yeung (Samutprakarn, Thailand)

Having been brought up in an Asian culture, I believed that having a man in the household was important. I married twice; both marriages ended in divorce. The first man flirted with my housemaid, and the second man loved my money. Both were unreliable. They brought me misery and heartache.

As years went by, I relied on my only brother, who lived next door. Together we made decisions such as what to do about treating my father’s chronic emphysema. I thought I could count on my brother in the future. Unfortunately, he died suddenly a few months ago. Now I am left with elderly parents and a sister who suffers from mental illness. I carry the burden of caring for all my family members.

Since my brother’s death I have come to learn that God is always present when I cry for help. When I make decisions big or small, I pray for guidance. The Lord not only protects me but also gives me wisdom to handle the struggles of daily life. Now I no longer worry about finding someone to lean on; I know I can always rely on God at every moment of my life.

The Meaning of Ash Wednesday

Ash Wednesday is a day of repentance and it marks the beginning of Lent. Ashes were used in ancient times, according to the Bible, to express mourning. Dusting oneself with ashes was the penitent’s way of expressing sorrow for sins and faults. An ancient example of one expressing one’s penitence is found in Job 42:3-6. Job says to God: “I have heard of thee by the hearing of the ear: but now mine eye seeth thee. Wherefore I abhor myself, and repent in dust and ashes.” (vv. 5-6, KJV) Other examples are found in several other books of the Bible including, Numbers 19:9, 19:17, Jonah 3:6, Matthew 11:21, and Luke 10:13, and Hebrews 9:13.

However, some Christians who do not celebrate Ash Wednesday say that the practice is not consistent with Scripture and is of pagan origin[13] They usually cite Matthew 6:16–18, where Jesus gave prescriptions for fasting: “And whenever you fast, do not look dismal, like the hypocrites. Truly I tell you, they have received their reward. But when you fast, put oil on your head and wash your face, so that your fasting may be seen not by others but by your Father who is in secret; and your Father who sees in secret will reward you.” (NRSV) These groups argue that Jesus warned against fasting to gain favor from other people and that he also warned his followers that they should fast in private, not letting others know they were fasting. For these reasons, some Christian denominations do not endorse the practice. Others, however, point out that this very passage from Matthew is the one, not coincidentally, that is appointed by the Revised Common Lectionary to be read on Ash Wednesday. They might also clarify that the ashen Cross on the forehead does not represent the fast, but the mortal (fallen) condition of human existence. And they would refer to Jesus’ words whereby he expected people to repent using sackcloth and ashes: “Woe to you, Korazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the miracles that were performed in you had been performed in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes.” (Luke 10:13; see also Matthew 11:21)

Friday, February 17, 2012

The Announcements as They Appear in Sunday's Bulletin

The announcements as they appear in Sunday's bulletin are below:

REFRESHMENTS . .
Everyone is invited to join the scouts in Fellowship Hall after services this morning for cake, coffee and punch.

OUR NURSERY FOR CHILDREN . . .
(infant thru five years) is open during Sunday School and the Worship Ser-vice. We still need some volunteer help. We thank those of you in advance who help to care for the future members of our Cove Family.

DON’T FORGET SUNDAY SCHOOL . . .
we meet every Sunday morning at 9:45 a.m. Think about trying out one of our classes. We have a variety of classes to choose from to fit your needs.

BOARD OF TRUSTEES MEETING . . .
tomorrow, Monday, February 20 at 6:30 p.m. in the board room. All members are urged to attend.

ASH WEDNESDAY . . .
will be observed this Wednesday, February 22 beginning at 7:00 p.m. Prayer boxes will be distributed. Lenten Devotionals will also be available to help you prepare for the Easter season.

THE BROWN BAG BIBLE STUDY . . .
will meet on Thursday, February 23, at 12:30 p.m. We’ll look at Calvinism.

ENJOY SOME GREAT SOUP AND LOVINGLY-MADE SANDWICHES...
next Sunday immediately after church. This is pot luck; therefore, we’d appreciate all soup and/or sandwich makers to pitch-in.

BOOKMARKS . . .
Cove’s Reading Group, will meet on Monday, February 27 at 6:30 p.m. in the church parlor.

GREETING CARDS. . .
are being collected as a mission project of the Myrtle McHendry Class. Please drop off your Greeting Cards or just the front of the card in the box located in the main hallway downstairs. The cards are being sent to St. Jude’s Ranch to be remade into cards to be sold in their gift shop. Hallmark, Disney or American Greeting Cards can not be accepted as they are trade marked. We thank you for your participation in our new endeavor.

DO YOU HAVE A NEW ADDRESS,. . .
new phone number or new e-mail ? Please contact the church office so we can update our records. We like to keep everyone informed of our events. If you don’t receive mailings from us, we may not have your current/correct information.

HAND SANITIZERS . . .
as a way of combating germs, two hand sanitizers have been installed for your convenience. One is located on the right wall downstairs as you come in the double doors. The second is located on the far wall in the narthex as you go towards the back stairway or towards the elevator.

PLEASE REMEMBER TO CONTACT THE CHURCH OFFICE . . .
if you have a meeting change of any type - time, date or plan something different on your meeting night. There are multiple meeting each night, and to accommodate everyone we need to be aware of any and all changes please either e-mail or telephone us. Also remember we follow Hancock County School’s schedule in the winter, if school is canceled due to bad weather evening activities are canceled as well. Thank you for your cooperation in these matters.

STOP IN THE CHURCH LIBRARY . . .
to view a picture of Holliday’s Cove from 1905 showing a view of Cove Church. The picture is compliments of the Weirton Museum.

REMINDER, PLEASE COVER . . .
the top of the church’s tables before they are used for any activity. They will stain and are hard to clean, this can be avoided with a little cooperation.

ONLY ONE. . .
a Peg Game designed by Bruce Trushel, is available in the church library. The learning game is a unique way to learn and remember the Ten Commandments. The game can be ordered from:
Only One God Foundation
PO Box 2459
Weirton WV 26062

GREETERS NEEDED . . .
if you would like to serve as a greeter before a Sunday morning worship service, please contact Bonnie Nichols at 304-723-5134.

WE ARE BLOGGING!
We now have six blogs that you can check out for information and on which you can leave comments. They're listed below:
• The Cove Community (www.thecovecommunity.blogspot.com) - This is for the whole church. I'll post sermons and announcements. I also invite y'all to send in material that you'd like to share with other members of the congregation. And please feel free to comment on anything you might read.
• Cove Kids (www.covekids.blogspot.com) - This is tailored for the preteen young people in our church. Again I'll post announcements. You're also invited to send in any writings, photographs and art work you'd like to post. And they don't have to all deal with the church. We also post artwork from Jesus Time.
• Glue (www.cove-glue.blogspot.com) - Our teens are running their own blog site; therefore, I have no idea what will be posted.
• Bible Talk (www.cove-bibletalk.blogspot.com) - We've established this blog to give pastors and lay people the chance to discuss Scripture. The weekly passages are from the Common Lectionary, and we're posting the pastor’s translation of the Greek text. We want you to read any or all of the passages and to leave any comment or ask any question that you feel is appropriate. Please include any research you've done. As we share our ideas and insights, we hope that we'll all come to a better and deeper understanding of the Bible. Each passage is linked to a website that offers some informative information.
• Let’s Talk About It (www.cove-talk.blogspot.com) - Through this site, we hope to encourage a conversation on a variety of topics. Since this blog is sponsored by a church, we expect most of the issues to involve the Christian faith. Still we don't want to limit ourselves or you. If you have a topic that you'd like us to discuss, include it as a comment to a previous issue. Please phrase it as a question and offer a summary of at least two positions. We'll add a new item to discuss every three weeks. We hope this challenges you to apply your faith to issues that are important to you.
• The Bible in a Year (www.cove-bibleinayear.blogspot.com) - Each day, we'll post passages so that you can read the Bible in one year.

IT IS OFTEN DIFFICULT TO HEAR PRAYER REQUESTS . . .
on Sunday mornings. If you would like to have someone added to the prayer chain please drop a short note into the collection plate with their name and any other information you would like to share. You may also call the church office or e-mail the church with the information.

IF YOU LEAVE AN ITEM AT CHURCH . . .
for someone or for a specific function, please take a moment to write the information on the item. If there is no name on the item we will assume it is for the church in general.

IN THE HOSPITAL? HOMEBOUND? RECENT ILLNESS?. . .
if you are unable to attend services and would like to arrange for a visit from Rev. Ed Rudiger please contact the church office. Also if you would like to be included in our weekly bulletin mailings contact the church office.

WE CAN ALWAYS DO A BETTER JOB MINISTERING . . .
to the needs within this congregation, community and world. Please feel free to offer any suggestions as comments.

LOOSE CHANGE OFFERING . . .
Session has approved the Deacons collecting a “Loose Change Offering” that will be used to assist the Deacons with their utility assistance outreach program for Weirton residents or Cove Church members. We hope church members can help with the assistance program by donating some of their spare change. A container is placed in the Narthex each Sunday morning before church. The Deacons thank you for your continuing support of their projects.

VASES OF FLOWERS. . .
can be purchased for a service. The cost is $16.00 a vase. Silk flowers or live plants can be purchased for an additional cost. The flower calendar is located on the far wall in the church narthex or you can telephone the church office to place your order. After the service, the flowers will be placed in a plastic vase for you to take with you.

IF YOU ARE LOOKING FOR NEWSPAPER CLIPPINGS. . .
newsletters from old friends or articles about or by members of Cove Church, check out the bulletin board located in the hallway by the church offices. Past event pictures are also on display in that area.

WE’RE UPDATING OUR PRAYER AND DEVOTION LINE . . .
about four times a week. If you would like to call and hear a devotional, please call 304-748-7900.

ONGOING MISSION PROJECTS . . .
• Used Can Tabs are being collected for the Ronald McDonald House in Morgantown, West Virginia. Deposit your tabs in the container located in the main hallway downstairs.
• Campbell’s Labels are being collected by the Presbyterian Women for the Weirton Christian Center. The labels can be dropped off in the container located in the main hallway downstairs.

History of the Boy Scouts of America

The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) was inspired by and modeled on the Boy Scout Association, established by Baden-Powell in Britain in 1908. In the early 1900s, several youth organizations were active, and many became part of the BSA (see Scouting in the United States).

The BSA grew rapidly and became the largest youth organization in the United States. Early issues involved race, the "younger boy problem," and the "older boy problem." Troops initially followed local community policy on race. For younger boys, the Cubbing program arose and for older boys, Rovering and Exploring programs were developed. Additional programs and changes have occurred over the years to adapt the program to the youth of the day.

W. D. Boyce and the Unknown Scout
W. D. Boyce was an American newspaper man and entrepreneur. According to legend, he was lost on a foggy street in London when an unknown Scout came to his aid, guiding him back to his destination.[1] The boy then refused Boyce's tip, explaining that he was merely doing his duty as a Boy Scout. Immediately afterwards, Boyce met with General Robert Baden-Powell, who was the head of the Boy Scout Association at that time. Boyce returned to America, and, four months later, founded the Boy Scouts of America. This version of the legend has been printed in numerous BSA handbooks and magazines. There are several variations of this legend, such as one that claims he knew about Scouting ahead of time.

In actuality, Boyce stopped in London en route to a safari in British East Africa. It is true that an unknown Scout helped him and refused a tip. But this Scout only helped him cross a street to a hotel, did not take him to the Scout headquarters, and Boyce never met Baden-Powell. Upon Boyce's request, the unknown Scout did give him the address of the Scout headquarters, where Boyce went on his own and picked up information about the group.[2] Weather reports show that London had no fog that day. Boyce returned to London after his safari and visited the Scout headquarters again and gained the use of Scouting for Boys in the development of a US Scouting program. This and other elements of the legend were promoted by James E. West in 1915 to help build up Boyce as the true founder of the BSA in order to defuse an escalating conflict between Daniel Carter Beard and Ernest Thompson Seton over who should be considered the founder of the BSA.[3][4] Elements of this story, including the fog, may have been borrowed from a story concerning the Rhode Island Boy Scouts.[5]

Scouting comes to the U.S.
Boyce returned to the United States and with Edward S. Stewart and Stanley D. Willis he incorporated the Boy Scouts of America on February 8, 1910 and applied for a congressional charter. The bill was tied up with a charter for the Rockefeller Foundation and Boyce withdrew it after many delays. Around this time, William Randolph Hearst, a rival newspaperman, formed the American Boy Scouts (ABS), a group that lasted through 1918. Between business and travel, Boyce did not spend much time on the new organization. Edgar M. Robinson, a senior administrator of the YMCA in New York City, learned of the new Boy Scout program and traveled to Chicago where he agreed to help Boyce organize the Boy Scouts as a national organization. Boyce pledged $1000 a month for a year to support the program– but reports indicate only three or four payments were actually made. Robinson returned to New York to begin the search for members. After a series of meetings in early 1910, the Woodcraft Indians led by Ernest Thompson Seton, the Boy Scouts of the United States headed by Colonel Peter Bomus and the National Scouts of America headed by Colonel William Verbeck were absorbed into the BSA.[6] The National Highway Patrol Association Scouts headed by Colonel E. S. Cornell and the Boy Pioneers (formerly known as the Sons of Daniel Boone) headed by Daniel Carter Beard were folded. The BSA National Office opened in the 28th Street YMCA in New York City on 1 June 1910. The first managing secretary (the precursor to the Chief Scout Executive) was John Alexander, a YMCA administrator from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. By autumn BSA had 2,500 leader applications from 44 states and 150,0900 youth inquiries.[7]

The National Council was formed in the fall of 1910 with Colin H. Livingstone as the national president, Robinson becoming the managing secretary (on a temporary leave from the YMCA) and Seton as Chief Scout. Beard, Bomus and Verbeck became the national Scout commissioners. Seton wrote A Handbook of Woodcraft, Scouting, and Life-craft, the original edition of what is now the Boy Scout Handbook. It was hastily published and shipped to potential leaders for review. Robinson wanted to return to his full time position at the YMCA, so Livingstone put out inquiries for a replacement. They hired James E. West an enterprising young lawyer known as an advocate of children's rights. West was hired on a six month temporary basis that lasted 35 years.

James West and the early days

Original Boy Scouts of America emblem
 The new BSA office on 5th Avenue opened in January 1911 with West at the helm and the movement began to grow at a rapid pace. One of West's first tasks was to revise the British-based program outline in Seton's handbook and adapt it for American boys. West was instrumental in expanding the third part of the Scout Oath:

To help other people at all times; to keep myself physically strong, mentally awake and morally straight.

He also pushed to add three parts to the Scout Law: brave, clean, and reverent. He then pressed article III of the constitution of the BSA, now known as the religious principle:

Boy Scouts of America believes that no member can grow into the best kind of citizen without recognizing an obligation to God.

As the BSA grew, the concept of the local council grew as a method of administration. With the local council came the beginning of the Commissioner Service. Local commissioners formed the first councils and started the tradition of direct support to the Scoutmaster. A first-class council had a paid commissioner, and could keep 15 cents of each 25 cent registration, while second-class councils with volunteer commissioners could keep five cents. The first annual meeting was held in February 1911 at the White House. It was agreed that the President of the United States— then William Howard Taft —was to be the honorary president of the BSA. Every U.S. president since has been elected by the Executive Board as the honorary president of the BSA. Former President Theodore Roosevelt was selected as the Chief Scout Citizen and honorary vice-president. Gifford Pinchot was selected as Chief Woodsman.

The new edition of the handbook– The Official Handbook for Boys was published. West was elevated in prestige through a change in his title when in November 1911 he became the Chief Scout Executive. He and his staff created two requirements that became fundamental to the structure of the organization, which were the requirement that troop charters be issued to a community organization or established group of citizens (first known as the sponsoring institution and now known as a chartered organization), and secondly, that each Scoutmaster would be under the supervision of a registered troop committee consisting of a chairman and at least two members who were not the Scoutmaster or his assistants.

In February 1912, Baden-Powell returned to the United States and West accompanied him on tour. Baden-Powell remarked that the BSA needed better communications. After discussions with the Executive Board, Boyce offered to fund a magazine if it were published by his company in Chicago. Livingstone declined the offer, noting that the board wanted the magazine to be published from the New York office. Boyce withdrew from all administrative duties and returned to newspaper management.[8] West learned of a Scouting magazine called Boys' Life and recommended it for purchase. The first cover by Norman Rockwell, Scout at Ship's Wheel, appeared on the September 1913 issue. In 1912, Sea Scouting became an official program, based on the British Sea Scout program. Arthur Rose Eldred became the first Eagle Scout in 1912.

Early controversies
The original handbook used a lot of material from Baden-Powell's handbook. The comments on loyalty to employers concerned the labor unions– the Industrial Workers of the World in Portland, Oregon protested loudly during the 1912 tour. These comments were removed from the 1911 edition and West made much of the labor positions of the rival American Boy Scouts.

Protests over the inclusion of African Americans arose early in the program. When Boyce departed, he turned the Boy Scout corporation over to the members of the Executive Board with the stipulation that the Boy Scouts would not discriminate on the basis of race or creed.[9] The BSA established the position that African Americans should be included, but that local communities should follow the same policies that they followed in the school systems. Thus, much of the American South as well as many major northern communities had segregated programs with "colored troops" until the late 1940s. Some troops in the South threatened to leave BSA and burn their uniforms if African American Scouts were permitted, but West was key in overcoming those obstacles.[4]

Since the BSA had early and enduring ties with the YMCA, a firmly Protestant organization, the Catholic church forbade their boys to join. The Catholics accepted the BSA in 1913, but troops would be Catholic only under Catholic adult leadership. Later that year, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints affiliated their Mutual Improvement Association with the BSA with similar restrictions.

In the years before World War I, pacifism and patriotism often came into conflict, and the BSA was sometimes in the middle. Some thought that the BSA was too militaristic, especially as characterized by their military style uniforms and discipline, while others felt that the BSA was unpatriotic in their stance against military training. In 1912, a member of another organization, the American Boy Scouts, shot another boy with a rifle. West quickly distanced the BSA from the ABS program and any military training or discipline. He refused to allow the BSA Supply group to sell the Remington rifle endorsed by the ABS and de-emphasized the Marksmanship merit badge. The National Rifle Association lobbied the Executive Board to issue the badge. In 1914, Colonel Leonard Wood resigned from the Board after a pacifistic article was published in Boys' Life that he considered to be "almost treasonable". Eventually, the rhetoric calmed down, and the BSA began to issue the Marksmanship merit badge. On the issue of militarism and Scouting, Baden-Powell said he had seen enough of war and that "...the boys should be kept away from the idea that they are being trained so that some day they might fight for their country. It is not war Scouting that is needed now, but peace Scouting." Baden-Powell also thought the BSA was too bureaucratic.[9]

The original use of the fleur-de-lis as an emblem was repugnant to some pacifist organizations who thought it a symbol of war. Beard added the eagle to the symbol and associated it with the compass rose. This was another conflict between Beard and Seton, as Seton had pressed for a wolf on the Scout emblem and as the emblem of what became the Eagle Scout award.

As early as 1910, Beard and Seton had an argument over who was the founder of Scouting. Programs for boys had been advanced by Seton in 1902, Beard in 1905 and Baden-Powell in 1906. Since Baden-Powell had based parts of the program on Seton's work, Seton claimed to be the founder. By 1915, the conflicts between had escalated and in an attempt to defuse the situation, West began promoting the story of the Unknown Scout that emphasized Boyce as the founder of the BSA. Seton still had Canadian citizenship, and this chafed some in the BSA, including West who often referred to him as "our alien friend". The board did not re-elect Seton as Chief Scout in 1915 and he soon stopped publishing in Boys' Life. By early 1916, Seton was officially out of the BSA program, and most of his contributions were removed from the 1916 edition of the handbook. Seton later established the Woodcraft League based on his older works and claimed he had not actually merged them into the BSA.

Boyce had argued for a program to serve boys who could not participate in a troop because of time or location, but West was against any such a program. In 1915, Boyce incorporated the Lone Scouts of America (LSA) and invested all of his new boys as members and himself as the "Chief Totem". The BSA later formed the Pioneer Scouts in 1916 as an outreach to mostly rural areas with only moderate success.[10] In 1924, the LSA merged into the BSA and was run as the Rural Scouting Division for the next decade.

West fiercely defended the use of the term Scout and the right to market Scouting merchandise. When the American Boy Scouts re-emerged as the United States Boy Scouts (USBS), West sued and won. The USBS renamed to the American Cadets but soon folded. The Salvation Army Life-Saving Scouts folded in the 1930s. By 1930, West claimed to have stopped 435 groups from unauthorized use of Scouting; this both the use as part of an organizational name and in the use of commercial products. When the Girl Scouts of America started, West discouraged the program. West had earlier worked with Luther Gulick when the Camp Fire Girls were established and always considered them to be the sister program of the BSA. When the Girl Scouts refused to give up their name in 1918, West appealed to Baden-Powell with no results. Lou Henry Hoover became the president of the Girl Scouts in 1922 and First Lady in 1929; West stopped his campaign to rename the Girl Scouts.

Birth of Cubbing
As early as 1911, Seton had developed a prototype program he named Cub Scouts of America that was never implemented. West felt that having BSA divisions for younger boys (those under 11; the "younger boy problem") would draw away boys from the core program, which was Scout troops focused on the 11–17 year old age group; thus he opposed such a program for some time. In spite of this, unofficial programs for younger boys started around this time, under names such as Junior Troops or Cadet Corps. The BSA obtained the rights to Baden-Powell's The Wolf Cub Handbook in 1916 and used it in unofficial Wolf Cub programs starting in 1918. This led to an issue with Beard who felt that the use of the British book was nearly disloyal to the US. West encouraged the formation of the Boy Rangers of America, a separate organization for boys eight through twelve based on an American Indian theme. The Boy Rangers used the Scout Law and Chief Guide Emerson Brooks was a Boy Scout commissioner in Montclair, New Jersey. The BSA finally began some experimental Cubbing units in 1928 and in 1930 the BSA began registering the first Cubbing packs, and the Boy Rangers were absorbed.[11]

The British Cubbing program used elements of Rudyard Kipling's Jungle Book series, with the Cubmaster taking the role of Akela and the assistant Cubmaster the role of Baloo. The American program also syncretized American Indian elements, with all Cub Scouts belonging to the Webelos tribe, symbolized by the Arrow of Light and led by Akela. Webelos was also an acronym meaning Wolf, Bear, Lion, Scout. The initial rank structure was Wolf, Bear and Lion, with ages of 9, 10 and 11. Dens of six to eight Cubs were entirely led by a Boy Scout holding the position of den chief.

Boy Scouts take to the streets in New York City, 1917.
World War I and beyond
Boy Scouts served as crowd control at the inauguration of President Woodrow Wilson in 1913, and have served at every inauguration since in some ceremonial role. The Philadelphia Area Council started a Scout honor society called the Order of the Arrow in 1915 that eventually became an important part of the Boy Scout program.

Paul Sleman, Colin H. Livingstone, Ernest S. Martin and James E. West successfully lobbied Congress for a federal charter for the BSA–partly as a way to deal with competition from the Lone Scouts of America,[10] which President Woodrow Wilson signed on June 15, 1916. It reads:[12]

That the purpose of this corporation shall be to promote, through organization and cooperation with other agencies, the ability of boys to do things for themselves and others, to train them in Scoutcraft, and to teach them patriotism, courage, self-reliance, and kindred virtues, using the methods which are now in common use by Boy Scouts.

During the war, radio transmitters were regulated, and Scouts were called to look for unauthorized units. Scouts were used as message runners, coast watchers, and were to be alert for men who had not reported for duty. Over $352 million of war bonds were sold by Scouts along with $101 million War Saving Stamps. They collected fruit pits to be processed into charcoal for gas masks and inventoried black walnut trees for use as propellers and gun stocks. The War Garden program was intended for Scouts to raise food at home, but was only moderately successful.[11]

When Baden-Powell returned to the US in 1919, the BSA held a huge rally in Central Park, and later a rally for the return of General John J. Pershing. During the war, it was noted that troops tended to fold if the Scoutmaster was called for service. Changes in the troop structure included limiting the size to 32 Scouts, the introduction of the troop committee and the senior patrol leader position. The Associate Scout, Veteran Scout and Pioneer Scout programs were introduced for Scouts with loose or no troop affiliation. Select paid commissioners in first class councils started to become the first Scout executives and an early professional development program was implemented. Theodore Roosevelt died in January 1919, Dan Beard lead a pilgrimage of Scouts to the grave in October in what became an annual event.

The BSA sent a large contingent to the 1920 World Scout Jamboree. Baden-Powell presented the Silver Wolf to West and Livingstone. West was persuaded to write the constitution and by-laws for what became the World Organization of the Scout Movement (WOSM). As part of the world movement, the BSA adopted the left handshake and a new uniform: the high collar jacket was replaced by a shirt and neckerchief and shorts were added as an option.

With a high concentration of troops in the New York City area, administration started to become burdensome. In 1921, Franklin Delano Roosevelt was persuaded to head a foundation overseeing the New York borough councils. Dr. George J. Fisher, a YMCA administrator, was recruited as the Deputy Chief Scout Executive. The US was divided 12 regions and then into areas directly reportable to the National Council. Boy's Life was in financial trouble by 1923 and West took over as editor. James J. Storrow replaced Colin Livingstone as president in 1925 and William Hillcourt, later known as "Green Bar Bill" began his association with the BSA. The first program for Scouts with disabilities was introduced in 1923.[13] After Storrow died in 1926, Milton A. McRae became the president briefly, followed by Walter W. Head. The Silver Buffalo Award was created in 1926: the first awards were to Baden-Powell, the Unknown Scout (presented as a statue at Gilwell Park), W. D. Boyce, Livingstone, Storrow (posthumously) Beard, Seton and Robinson. Charles Lindbergh was elected as the 18th Honorary Scout in 1927 and awarded the Silver Buffalo in 1928.

The Rural Scouting program was expanded with the Railroad Scouting program in 1926. The BSA began expanding the Negro Scouting program: by 1927 thirty-two communities in the south had "colored troops", with twenty-six troops in Louisville, Kentucky.[14] The junior assistant Scoutmaster position was created in 1926 and Eagle Palms were added in 1927. Boys' Life promoted a photo safari to Africa for three Scouts in 1928. The three Scouts, Robert Douglas, David Martin, and Douglas Oliver, wrote the book Three Boy Scouts in Africa upon their return as part of their requirement of being selected for this trip with Martin and Osa Johnson, American photographers known for their African safari movies and photographs. Later in 1928, a trip to the Antarctic with Commander Byrd was promoted and Eagle Scout Paul Siple was selected for the expedition. Hillcourt wrote the first Patrol Leader Handbook, published in 1929. The Silver Wolf was presented to Beard and Mortimer L. Schiff. The first Silver Buffalo Awards were presented in 1926.[11] Membership registration and fees for volunteers began in 1929. By the end of the decade the BSA had a membership of 842,540.

1930s
Mortimer Schiff was elected as president in 1931, but died after serving one month and Walter Head returned until 1946. Schiff's mother purchased and donated 400 acres (1.6 km2) of land in New Jersey and donated it to the BSA, thus creating Mortimer L. Schiff Scout Reservation as a national training center. President Roosevelt encouraged Scouts to do their part during the Great Depression. Scouts responded by providing services to assist relief agencies and Scout leaders provided training for the Civilian Conservation Corps. The Senior Scout program within the troop and the Rovering program for older Scouts was introduced in 1933, but was not promoted and was discontinued in 1947. The BSA planned to celebrate their 25th anniversary with a jamboree in Washington, D.C., but it was canceled due to an outbreak of polio. An experimental Wood Badge course was conducted in 1936 along with a Rover Wood Badge Course– both were based on the then current British syllabi. The 1937 National Scout Jamboree was opened by Dan Beard who lit a fire with flint and steel using wood from all 48 states. In 1937, oil magnate Waite Phillips donated to the BSA a large tract of land in the Rocky Mountains of New Mexico that became the Philmont Scout Ranch. Scouts participated at the 1939 New York World's Fair. Just under 4,000 Scouts camped on site and served as ushers, guides and honor guards. A rally attracted 63,0000 Scouts. The decade ended with a membership of 1,391,831.[11]

Boy Scouts attend church service
in Philadelphia, 1949.
1940s
In 1940, composer Irving Berlin wrote to West expressing a desire to further the aims of Scouting. He created a foundation to distribute the royalties from his song "God Bless America" to the Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts.

In 1941, the Webelos rank was created for 11-½ year-old boys. The first Webelos badge used the emblem today known as the Arrow of Light and was worn on the left pocket flap. Den mothers became optional Cubbing leaders in 1936, eventually becoming a registered position in 1948. The Bob Cat rank was introduced in 1938 as the entry-level badge for a new Cub, with a pin for non-uniform wear. Until 1942, boys joining Cubbing at any age were required to work their way through the ranks, first earning Bob Cat, then Wolf, Bear and Lion, wearing only their current rank and arrow points. After 1942, Bob Cat became a joining rank, then the Cub Scout progressed to the next rank for his age level and all earned rank badges were worn. In 1945, the Cubbing program was renamed to Cub Scouts. 1947 saw the uniform change from knickers to trousers. The age groups were changed to 8, 9 and 10 in 1949. Bob Cat became Bobcat around 1950.[11][15][16]

In 1949 the minimum age for a Boy Scout was lowered from 12 to 11 and adults were now proscribed from earning merit badges and youth ranks.

1950s
BSA membership rose dramatically between 1950 and 1960, from 2.8 million to 5.2 million. The 40th anniversary celebrated the theme of "Strengthen the Arm of Liberty." As part of the theme, the BSA distributed over 200 replicas of the Statue of Liberty. The 8-foot-4-inch (2.54 m) copper statues are known as the "Little Sisters of Liberty".[17]

The first pinewood derby was held in 1953, becoming an official part of the program in 1955. In 1954, the Webelos den program was started for 10-½ year olds and a Webelos den emblem was introduced, used on the Webelos den flag and replacing the den number on the uniform. The Bobcat pin was approved for uniform wear in 1959.[16] In 1956, Scouts and Scouters who participated in an approved international activity or event were allowed to wear the World Crest as a permanent award. Local councils were allowed to present the crest in 1957.

In 1959, the Boy Scout Handbook's dimensions increased to their present size and it was printed in full color for the first time. Cub Scouts and Boy Scouts lowered their age limits, and Exploring was extensively modified to include vocational exploration.[11][15]

1960s
The 1960s saw the peak periods of membership for the BSA in almost every category, as the baby-boomer generation had its Scout-age boys joining packs and troops across the country. Exploring was becoming more oriented to career-exploration as a primary emphasis. The BSA was applauded by most for firmly prohibiting racial discrimination in its rules and regulations.

The Air Scouts program established in 1941 and renamed Air Explorers in 1949, was disestablished in 1965 and fully merged into the then existing Explorer program of the BSA as a specialty called 'Aviation Explorers', eventually discontinuing its uniforms by the early 1970s. It still exists today as part of the BSA's Learning for Life Explorer program. A parallel program with a nautical emphasis known as Sea Scouts continues to exist today as Sea Scouting, part of the Venturing program that the Boy Scouts of America offers for young men and women.

Most of the big changes in program elements during the decade of the 1960s were in Cub Scouting, and were directed at retaining the oldest Cub Scouts who were dropping out before they were old enough to graduate to Boy Scouting. In 1967, the Lion badge and traditional parent-directed advancement for 10 year olds was discarded for the new Webelos program, which became more focused on the transition to Boy Scouting. The Webelos program introduced 15 topical activity badges alongside the Arrow of Light badge requirements. A new Webelos colors badge was developed to hold the activity badge pins, and the hat and neckerchief featured the new Webelos symbol. The meaning of Webelos was changed to We'll Be Loyal Scouts.

Also in 1967, the den mother position was changed to den leader and opened to males and females, and the den leader coach position was added as a trainer of den leaders.

1970s
The BSA commissioned a series of studies and developed an updated program to modernize Scouting in a manner similar to the changes the British Boy Scout Association had introduced in 1967.

Outdoors skills de-emphasized - In September 1972 the Boy Scouts launched the Improved Scouting Program. They published a radically revised handbook which made learning outdoor skills optional for the three lower ranks, They eliminated outdoor merit badges, no longer considering them required; those removed included Camping, Cooking, Nature, Swimming, and Lifesaving. Under the new program, a Scout could reach First Class without hiking, camping or cooking over a fire.[18] The Scoutcraft information and requirements were replaced by information on drug abuse, family finances, child care and community problems.[18] The use of boy was de-emphasized: the eighth edition of the handbook was titled simply Scout Handbook and the new strategic logo used Scouting/USA. The concept of the personal growth agreement conferences was introduced as a requirement for each rank.

Other changes included new colored cloth badges for all ranks and positions and "skill awards", represented by a metal loop worn on the belt, that were awarded instantly at the time they were earned.[18] They supplemented individual rank requirements which along with merit badges were also presented immediately, and recognized later at the court of honor. The merit badge program—previously only available to First Class and above—was opened to all ranks, and merit badges were required for Tenderfoot, Second Class and First Class. The number of required merit badges for Eagle Scout was increased to 24, and Camping merit badge was dropped from the required list. The entry age was changed to 11 or 10-½ if a boy had finished fifth grade.[18]

The Cub Scout Promise was changed from "to be square" to "to help other people", as the term square went from meaning honest to rigidly conventional. The Boy Scouts also introduced a new Webelos badge and converted the former Webelos badge into the Arrow of Light.

For the first time the handbook emphasized modern conservation practices, de-emphasizing pioneering and introducing modern knife and ax usage. It eliminated the destructive practice of ditching around tents.[18]

The Senior Boy Scout program was replaced by the Leadership Corps. Initially the Leadership Corps was limited to leaders 14–15; older boys were expected to become junior assistant Scoutmasters or move to Exploring. The Leadership Corps could wear the forest green shirt with a Scout BSA strip until it was discontinued in 1979. The Leadership Corps patch was worn in place of the patrol patch, The first version of the patch was trapezoidal, replaced by a round patch in 1987. The red beret was initially introduced for the Leadership Corps, and extended for troop wear in 1973.[19]

Junior leader training revised - Troop Leader Development (TLD), adapted from the White Stag Leadership Development Program, was introduced in 1974 to train youth leaders.[20] The Cornerstone program was introduced to train adult leaders. Leaders who completed the course were recognized by a special version of the leader's emblem that was embroidered with mylar thread, giving a shiny look.[21]

From the early 1920s, the BSA had been divided into 12 numbered regions, each designated by a Roman numeral, which consisted of territories of several states. The 12 regions followed the organization of the federal reserve system at that time. In 1972, the 12 regions were consolidated into a new alignment of six geographic regions (Northeast, East Central, Southeast, North Central, South Central, and Western).

In 1973, most Cub Scout leadership positions were opened to women, and in 1976 the Cubmaster, assistant Cubmaster, and all commissioner positions could also be filled by women.[22]

Return to traditional Scouting - The changes in the advancement requirements were a disastrous failure for Scouting and membership plummeted.[18] The BSA lured William "Green Bar Bill" Hillcourt out of retirement in 1979 and he spent an entire year writing the 9th Edition of the Boy Scout Handbook. It was a return to the traditional Scouting program after the disastrous membership losses suffered by the 1970s program.[23] From a peak of 6.5 million Scouts in 1972, membership declined to a low of 4.3 million in 1980.[24] The 9th Edition has a great deal in common with prior editions of the handbooks that Hillcourt had helped write. The new edition reproduced entire paragraphs and pictures from the earlier editions.[25]

In 1976 the National Boy Scouts discontinued the Improved Scouting Program and introduced "All Out for Scouting", a back-to-basics program developed by Hillcourt. The program was launched with "Brownsea Double-Two", a week-long course for the senior patrol leader who would then introduce the troop-level "Operation Flying Start" to their units.[26] It emphasized teaching and practicing Scout skills, the purposes of Scouting, and the role of the patrol method within the troop program. [27] Many councils ran both Brownsea and Troop Leader Development, but some councils held only one or the other. The number of Eagle required merit badges was reduced back to 21, and Camping was restored to the required list.[24]

In 1979, the next iteration of junior leader training was introduced in the Troop Leader Training Conference. It replaced TLD and Brownsea Double-Two. It was published with the intent "to eventually replace Troop Leader Development (#6544) and also provide the Scoutcraft skills experiences of Brownsea Double Two."[28] This paralleled a roll-back of an urban emphasis in Scouting which had removed mention of the word "campfire" from the 8th edition of the Boy Scout Handbook.[29]

While the stated aim was to consolidate the two programs, many councils continued to put on both programs or used elements from the previous programs, producing inconsistency in how junior leader training was delivered nation-wide.[30]

1980s
In 1980, the new Boy Scout uniform designed by Oscar de la Renta was introduced. The Varsity Scouts program was introduced in 1984 as an alternate program for older boys.

Tiger Cubs were started in 1982 as a pack associated program for seven year old boys; the uniform consisted of an orange T-shirt and a cap. The Tiger Cub Promise was "I promise to love God, my family and my country, and to learn about the world." The Tiger Cub Motto was "Search, Discover, Share."

In 1984, several uniform changes were brought in. Webelos Scouts were given the option to wear the Boy Scout uniform with Webelos cap, neckerchief, insignia and blue shoulder loops. The original yellow Cub Scout neckerchief became the Wolf Cub Scout neckerchief and Bear Cub Scouts got their own light blue neckerchief. In 1986, Cub Scout membership was changed from age based to school grade based[31] and the Webelos Scout program was expanded to two years.

In 1989, some of the last elements of the Improved Scout Program ended when the skill award program was discontinued and the individual requirements were returned to the ranks. The Leadership Corps program was eliminated and the Venture crew and Varsity team programs for older boys 14–17 within the troop were introduced.[11] Initially, girls were allowed to participate in team and crew activities, but this was later quietly dropped. These programs used the Venture/Varsity Letter with activity pins for recognition. The Varsity team program within the troop was discontinued in 1996. When the Venturing program was introduced in 1998, Venture crews were redesignated as Venture patrols. In early 2005, confusion has been raised over whether the BSA quietly stopped allowing Venture Patrols to use the Venture/Varsity Letter and activity pins, restricting them to just Varsity Scouts. The published statement said "only Varsity Scouts can earn the program's Varsity letter...".[32] The statement omits the point however that members of a Venture patrol can still earn a Venture letter and activity pins. The BSA's 2007 Official Placement of Insignia specifies the placement of the Venture letter on the merit badge sash.[33] Initially, the youth leaders were the Venture crew chief and assistant crew chief and the Varsity team captain and team co-captain. The adult leaders were the assistant Scoutmaster Venture and the assistant Scoutmaster Varsity. All of these positions and the emblems were eliminated except for assistant Scoutmaster Venture.

1990s
In 1992, the six regions were reorganized again into four regions—Western, Central, Southern and Northeast. The Cub Scout Academics program was introduced in 1992 and became the Cub Scout Academics and Sports program in 1996. In 1990 requirements for the World Crest were changed to taking part in an international exhibit or display or an international event. The requirements were eliminated in 1991, and all Scouts now wear the World Crest as a display of world brotherhood in Scouting. The International Activity Patch replaced the World Crest as an emblem of participation in an international event.[16] This is also the era in which the BSA restructured in an effort to reduce manpower by consolidating smaller councils into larger ones. In 1996 the Tiger Cub was presented with a Tiger Cub BSA emblem for wear on the blue Cub Scout uniform after graduating into the pack. Venturing made its debut in 1998.[11]

2000s
The Tiger Cub Den became an integrated part of the pack in 2001 and the standard blue uniform was adopted with Tiger Cub hat, neckerchief and slide. The Tiger Cub strip was replaced by the diamond shaped badge and the Tiger Cub Promise was replaced by the Cub Scout Promise.

In 2004, the Scoutreach division launched the Scouting and Soccer program with an emphasis on outreach to Hispanic/Latino youth and families.[11][34] The Tiger Cub Motto was replaced by the Cub Scout Motto in 2006. A new version of the Webelos badge was introduced, oval shaped like the Boy Scout badges and worn only on the khaki shirt.[35][36] In June 2006, in a move to align Tiger Cubs with the rest of the Cub Scout program, Tiger Cubs were required to earn the Bobcat badge first.

References
1 Robert, Peterson (2001), "The Man Who Got Lost in the Fog", Scouting (Boy Scouts of America), http://www.scoutingmagazine.org/issues/0110/d-wwas.html, retrieved 2006-07-11

2 Petterchak, Janice A. (2003), Lone Scout: W. D. Boyce and American Boy Scouting, Rochester, Illinois: Legacy Press, pp. 63–67, ISBN 0-9653198-7-3
3 Rowan, Edward L (2005), To Do My Best: James E. West and the History of the Boy Scouts of America, Las Vegas International Scouting Museum, ISBN 0-9746479-1-8
4 a b Petterchak 2003, p. 77
5 Rowan, Dr. Edward (2006), "James E. West and the History of the Boy Scouts of America", International Scouting Collectors Association Journal (ISCA Journal) 6 (1): 11–15
6 Petterchak 2003, p. 67
7 Petterchak 2003, p. 70
8 Petterchak 2003, p. 75
9 a b Petterchak 2003, p. 69
10 a b Petterchak 2003, p. 110
11 a b c d e f g h i A Brief History of the Boy Scouts of America, Three Fires Council, http://www.threefirescouncil.org/History/, retrieved 2006-07-27
12 PATRIOTIC AND NATIONAL OBSERVANCES, CEREMONIES, AND ORGANIZATIONS — BOY SCOUTS OF AMERICA, U. S. House of Representatives, 2006-01-02, http://uscode.house.gov/download/pls/36C309.txt, retrieved 2008-10-11
13 Scouts with Special Needs, Patriots’ Path Council, Boy Scouts of America, http://www.ppbsa.org/mem/memwb29.htm, retrieved 2006-03-20
14 The Black Boy Scout, A History..., The African American Registry, http://www.aaregistry.com/african_american_history/2781/The_Black_Boy_Scout_a_history___, retrieved 2006-07-23
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18 a b c d e f "The Boy Scout Handbook, 1910-Today: 8th Edition—Scout Handbook (1972-1979)". Troop 97. http://www.troop97.net/bshb_ed8.htm. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
19 Brown, Michael R., "Leadership Corps (1972-89)", A History of Senior Scouting Programs in the BSA, http://www.seniorscoutinghistory.org/seniorscoutsite/leadershipcorps.html, retrieved 2006-03-07
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22 "The Changing Role of Women in Cub Scouting". The Virtual Cub Leader's Handbook. Archived from the original on 2009-10-26. http://www.webcitation.org/query?url=http://www.geocities.com/~PACK215/hist-cs-women.html&date=2009-10-26+00:36:30. Retrieved 2006-02-06.
23 "9th Edition—Official Boy Scout Handbook (1979-1990)", The Boy Scout Handbook: 1910-Today (Troop 97), http://www.troop97.net/bshb1.htm, retrieved 2006-03-17
24 a b BSA: the 1970s, Troop 97, http://www.troop97.net/t97hist2.htm, retrieved 2006-03-17
25 "The Boy Scout Handbook, 1910-Today: 9th Edition—Official Boy Scout Handbook (1979-1990)". Troop 97. http://www.troop97.net/bshb_ed9.htm. Retrieved 30 October 2011.
26 Historical Background of Leadership Development: Brownsea Double-Two, 1976, The Pine Tree Web, http://www.pinetreeweb.com/brownsea.htm, retrieved 2006-03-17
27 "Brownsea II (Double-two) (Leadership Development) 1976 - Present". San Francisco Bay Area Council. http://sfbac-history.org/SFBAC-BSII.html. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
28 Troop Leader Training Conference Staff Guide, Boy Scouts of America, 1979
29 "The Science of Boy Scouting". http://www.inquiry.net/leadership/index.htm. Retrieved 2-9-2010.
30 "Brownsea II Leadership Training Program" (PDF). Irving, Texas: Boy Scouts of America. http://yccbsa.org/Training/Brownsea22_08.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-03. [dead link]
31 Packs chartered to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints continue to used the age based system
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36 Craig Murray, "Cub Scout Rank Badges 1930 - Present", The Hiker, http://www.sageventure.com/history/cub/index.htm, retrieved 2006-02-06